ISSN: 1813-0534






Volume 9 No 2 December edition 2013


Volume 9*Number 2* AUGUST 2013

ISSN 1813-0534

1. Doctor-Patient Gender and Interactions in A Medically

Under-Served Population


Dr Payal Mehra, Indian Institute of Management Lucknow ,India


Evidence for doctor’s communication style and gender differences comes mainly from the Western countries; little is known about gender differences in non western countries. In medicine,there is a possibility that gender stereotypes are not being practiced. Therefore it is reasonable to examine the micro aspects of doctor-patient communication and in-clinic satisfaction, especially in India, where gender divide is predominant. India is also a medically underserved nation and it is of interest to know how this impacts the doctor patient interaction. Results reveal that satisfaction with the doctor is not wholly dependent on the effective communication behaviors practiced by the doctors;it is a function of the perceived expertise of the doctor. Though the in-clinic satisfaction is not affected by gender, yet the gender of the doctor matters in the shaping of the patient-physician relationship and enhancement of consultation outcomes. The study recommends inclusion of communication and related courses into the medical curricula


Keywords: Socio-demographic influencers, Cognitive and Affective empathy, Interaction styles,

Power distance index, Gender dyads


2. Australia’s Energy Sector: Implications for Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Policies


Disna Sajeewani

School of Economics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia

Mahinda Siriwardana

UNE Business School, University of New England, Armidale, Australia

Judith McNeill

Institute for Rural Futures, BCSS, University of New England, Armidale, Australia


This paper presents some of the key features of the Australia’s energy sector with respect to its contribution to the economy, greenhouse gas emissions and how the energy sector has challenged all past and present government to developing an effective mitigation policy.This is mainly because Australia produces world’s cheapest electricity with very high emissions intensive carbon bearing fossil energy sources.The high emission intensive energy use is one of the major reasons for Australia to be highlighted as the highest percapita emitting nation in the world, although, Australia produces less than 1.5 percent of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions.As a result energy sector has played a key role in deciding Australia’s emission mitigation policy framework that has been successfully implemented in July 2012.


3. The Relevance of Resource Transferability and International

Experience for Entry into China


Stuart C.Orr and Jane L.Menzies, Deakin Graduate School of Business, Deakin University, Australia


Taxonomies explaining internationalisation strategy are effective in relating connected variables to the decision-making process and entry mode strategies of organisations.Almost no taxonomies for entry modes into China exist, where the local conditions affecting entry are significantly different to those in other countries have been developed.The taxonomy developed in this paper from research

into 40 Australian companies which had successfully and unsuccessfully internationalised into China identified resource transferability and international experience as connected variables that can categorise the factors of entry choice.High levels of resource transferability lead to joint ventures or wholly-owned foreign enterprises.Low levels led to exporting/importing or project/client based/licensing.High levels of international experience led to wholly-owned foreign enterprises or joint ventures.Low levels led to project/client based/licensing or exporting/importing.The factors that drive these decisions were developed using a framework derived from the resource-based view of the firm, supporting the application of the resource-based view to internationalisation strategy.


4. Export Supply Models in Selected Trade Deficit Categories in Australia


Belicka Samuel, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia


This study introduces Export (X) supply models to analyse the determinants of the X supply from the theoretical and empirical perspectives from Australia tothe Rest of the World (RoW) and to eight selected Trade Deficit (TD) countries in four selected TD categories.The eight selected TD countries are China, France, Germany, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States of America and four TD categories are Category 30 - Pharmaceutical Products; Category 84 – Nuclear Reactors, Boilers, Machinery and Mechanical Appliances; Parts Thereof; Category 85 – Electrical Machinery and Equipment and Parts Thereof; Sound Recorders and Producers, Television Image and Sound Recorders and Reproducers, and Parts and Accessories of Such Articles and Category 87 -Vehicles Other Than Railway or Tramway Rolling-Stock, and Parts and Accessories Thereof.The total

of 33 X supply models are estimated side-by-side, based on both the monetary – Australian Dollar(AUD) and Quantity (QTY) values, giving in total 66 X supply models.This study finds that the most

significant variables in the determination of the X supply are real income followed by relative prices,while the X supply is mostly responsive to changes in real income and mostly unresponsive to changes in real prices.Finally, this study also finds that inconclusive evidence exists that capacity utilization increases the X supply, while some evidence exists that the X supply has considerably increased in most of the categories since the introduction of the Goods and Service Tax (GST) in Australia.


5. Social Media and Its Impact among Malaysian Travellers


Dr. Sreenivasan Jayashreea, Faculty of Management, MultiMedia University, Malaysia

Dr. Chinnasamy Agamudai Nambhi Malarvizhi, Faculty of

Management Multi Media University, Malaysia

Amin Ansary, Faculty of Management, Multi Media University,Malaysia

Moussa Anis Ben Benchir, Faculty of Management, Multi Media University, Malaysia


Nowadays, contents generated by users on the internet is growing very fast through the social media which gives the ability to its users to search, share and contribute contents collaboratively on

the internet. Currently, more travelers are tapping into ‘‘collective intelligence’’ that is available on the internet and this is going to challenge the practices of tourism industry. Therefore, it is very

important for decision makers in the travel industry to know how the travelers use social media prior,during and after the trip as it helps to see how others’ contributions and opinions on social media can affect the decisions made by travelers who view those opinions when planning or going for a trip. This study aims to identify the factors that influence the usage of social media among Malaysian travelers specifically with relation to functional benefits, social benefits, hedonic benefits, and efforts, difficulty of usage and loss of privacy. This study was performed on 112 travelers in Malaysia. The results of this study show that functional benefits, efforts, and loss of privacy are influencing factors whereas social benefits, hedonic benefits and difficulty of use are not significant in the usage of social media among Malaysian travelers.


6. Firm Characteristics and Corporate Governance – NZX Evidence


Md. Borhan Uddin Bhuiyan, School of Accountancy, Massey University, New Zealand

Jamal Roudaki, Department of Accounting, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand

Murray Clark, Department of Accounting, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand


The objective of the paper is to examine the impact of corporate governance compliance followed by corporate governance regulations in New Zealand Stock Exchange listed companies. A

detailed corporate governance index was prepared to measure the compliance and found that corporate governance regulation does matter in New Zealand. Companies that were listed on the New Zealand stock exchange (NZX) over the period 2000 to 2007 are examined, and the results show that corporate governance regulations, stock exchange listing tenure and ownership concentration have positive impact on corporate governance compliance. However, business operating tenure has negative impact on corporate governance compliance. This study documented that voluntary formed such as, ‘comply or explain’ of corporate governance is significantly important of compliance to the companies. This study provides insights to regulators who are interested to regulating corporate governance indicators.

Keywords:Corporate Governance, regulation, listing tenure, ownership concentration, ‘comply or explain’, New Zealand.


7. Towards A Taxonomy of Play in Organizational Settings


Martin Spraggon, American University of Sharjah,United Arab Emirates


Current studies in the work-play domain have explored a large variety of play forms and playful manifestations that arise in everyday life of organizations bringing about significant insights in the field. Yet, the large majority of these studies explored a specific form of play in isolation and in a particular context, contributing to the augmentation of the mounting level of fragmentation in the

literature and nurturing apparent incompatibilities among organizational play perspectives (Kolb and Kolb, 2010). In this paper I seek to fill this gap in the literature by advancing an integrative conceptual taxonomy of different typologies of play that occur in organizational settings. I aim to examine and

integrate different forms of play that have been addressed in previous studies in the field of organizational play by building a holistic play framework for better understanding and managing

different playful behaviors that take place in the life of corporations. Several practical implications for each typology of play are identified and discussed.


8. Characteristics of US Companies That Adopted SAB 108 and Corrected Prior Period Misstatements: An Empirical Analysis

Dr. Srinivasan Ragothaman


Beacom School of Business, University of South Dakota, USA


Prior period misstatements can come from multiple sources including arithmetic errors, GAAP errors, improper revenue recognition, aggressive liability estimates, understating expenses, and others. After SAB 108 went into effect in late 2006, US companies have to use the dual approach – the

rollover” and the “iron curtain” approaches and correct the cumulative errors in both the income statement and the balance sheet. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the financial

characteristics of companies that adopted SAB 108 and corrected prior period errors.The univariate test (t-test for mean differences) indicates that the SAB 108 firms are significantly smaller, have lower returns on equity, and lower gross margins when compared to a set of control firms matched by industry.The t-test results also indicate that the mean total asset turnover ratio and the mean inventory ratio are significantly higher for the SAB 108 firms when compared to the control firms.SAB 108 error corrections are more often found in business services industry.While 33 percent of the control firms received clean audit opinions, only 17.6 percent of the SAB 108 adopters received clean audit opinions and the difference is statistically significant.The logistic regression (a multivariate test) results indicate that the total assets turnover ratios and size measures are significantly different between the SAB 108 firms and control firms.Investors, government regulators, external auditors, and financial analysts could be interested in the results of this study.


9. Corporate Disclosures in Financial Statements and Its Determinants:An Empirical Study


Dr.Mehul Raithatha, Institute for Financial management and Research (IFMR),Chennai, India

Dr.Varadraj Bapat, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, India


This study aims at determining the level of compliance with mandatory disclosures required by accounting standards and examines whether a significant relationship exists between the disclosure level and a number of key company attributes namely company’s age, size, profitability, leverage,foreign listing, type of audit firm, foreign ownership.A questionnaire (149 Questions), based on disclosures required by accounting standards has been administered on a sample (500) of listed Indian companies to compute Disclosure Index (DI).The average DI was just 71%.The disclosure level has a significant positive relationship with size, foreign listing and Big 4 audit firm.


10. Further Evidence of Critical Thinking and Final Examination

Performance in Advanced Financial Accounting


Indra Abeysekera, University of Wollongong, Australia


This study examines whether in-course test components requiring stronger critical-thinking skills can help explain final examination performance in an advanced undergraduate financial accounting

course, conducted in 2003 and 2004 over three continuous semesters at an Australian university. It proposes and validates two levels of dimensions affecting final examination performance: in-course test components and students’ previous university academic performance. Analysis of a database of 1,816 students using standardised multiple regression over three continuous semesters suggests that while overall Grade Point Advantage (GPA) is the single best determinant of final examination performance, in-course test components that require more critical thinking are better determinants than others, except for the in-course ethics essay test.Length of stay also had some predictive ability.This study suggests that academics should pay attention to monitoring and providing feedback to students on their in-course performance in tests that examine critical-thinking skills covering a wide

range of topics.Such monitoring and feedback may assist in improving the final examination performance of students in this course.


11. Drivers of Quality Management in Select Pharmaceutical

Companies in Tamilnadu - A Rotated Factor Matrix Approach


Swaminathan .T.N., Great Lakes Institute of Management, Chennai, India

Balasubramanian .G., Institute for Financial Management and Research, Chennai, India


To excel Quality is paramount. Quality is never an accident and is always the result of high intentions, sincere efforts, intelligent direction and skillful execution. Quality management system is a

methodology to manage and evolve a globally competitive business irrespective of the size of the business. Quality system is critical in the pharmaceutical industry since the products directly impinge on the well being of the consumer.Every firm depending on their size and resource capabilities adopt different processes for quality system management.Therefore, this study was undertaken to extract and examine the factors influencing quality system management in selected pharmaceutical firms and to examine relationship between selected factors and level of quality system management in Tamil Nadu,India.In order to analyze the identified variables in the study area, Varimax Rotation Method has been adopted.The results of both factor analysis and regression estimates revealed that ‘management commitment’ had a greater influence on the quality system of pharmaceuticals products and management commitment, process control and personnel and training emerge as common influencing factors of quality systems irrespective of their size in pharmaceutical enterprises.


12. Extending The Two-Factor Theory to Healthcare Contexts:

Trust - and Distrust-Based Governance Configurations in Patient-Doctor Encounters


Virginia Bodolica, American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates


This article seeks to respond to recent calls in healthcare management literature by tackling the question of optimal attributes of monitoring the relationship between care-givers and receivers for securing superior health outcomes and higher patient satisfaction. Relying on the principal-agent model of patient-doctor encounters which necessitates the adoption of both trust- and distrust-based governance devices, a two-factor theory of governance is developed and applied to interactional processes in medical contexts.The article highlights the dual nature of relational governance which depends on the simultaneous coexistence of the bipolar trust and distrust constructs for overseeing the quality of patient-doctor relationships.Combining different shades along the low-high continuum on trust- and distrust-based mechanisms of control, four governance configurations are identified,including the ‘doctor-led governance’, ‘patient-led governance’, ‘marginal governance’, and ‘optimal governance’.It is suggested that each of the three governance modes which suffer from insufficient levels of patients’ trust or distrust ought to converge towards the ‘optimal governance’ configuration which is highly intensive in both dimensions and allows concomitantly for the exercise of physicians’ professional autonomy and the respect for patients’ right to self-determination.The key implications

for policy and practice in healthcare markets are discussed and suggestions for future research directions in the field are provided.


13. ACHIEVE Model : A Complement to Tuckman’s Group DevelopmentTheory


Dominique D. Calhoun, MBA

Coordinator of Multicultural Affairs

Division of Student Affairs

Midwestern State University

Wichita Falls, TX ,USA

Michael Mills, Ed. D.

Instructor of Management and

Director of Housing

Division of Student Affairs and Enrollment Management

Midwestern State University

Wichita Falls, TX

Alan J. Dubinsky

Dillard Distinguished Professor of Marketing

Dillard College of Business Administration

Midwestern State University

Wichita Falls, TX 76308


Professor Emeritus

Purdue University

West Lafayette, IN


This paper reviews group development theory, focusing primarily on Tuckman’s group development model, and introduces a new model, the ACHIEVE model, to complement Tuckman’s

work.Created in 1965 by Bruce Tuckman, the original model presents the familiar four stages of group development – forming, storming, norming, and performing.Although employed by many

practitioners, the model has been criticized regarding its practicality and usage chiefly in clinical settings.The ACHIEVE model aims to reduce the ambiguity surrounding Tuckman’s stage

development and build a more practical road map to ensure that all users of the model have a clearer understanding of stage actualization.


14. Arts-Marketing and Marketing Strategy Development : Modelling The Marketing Activities of Visual Artists across Their Career


Dr Kim Lehman , Dr Mark Wickham

School of Management, University of Tasmania ,Australia


The purpose of this paper is to explore the parallel relationship that exists between traditional marketing’s Product Life Cycle (PLC) and the notion of a ‘career trajectory’ (as it applies to visual

artists)and to introducea Visual Artists Career Trajectory (VACT) model .The VACT model uses the PLC framework to investigate a facet of the contemporary art market that up until now has received a paucity of academic attention .This investigation also introduces the concept of ‘enduring maturity’ in the ‘post-career’ stage of an artist’s career that might be useful in informing the traditional PLC to make it more powerful in predicting/suggesting strategies for products as they progress through the

Late maturity’ and ‘Decline’ stages of their life-cycle.


15. Relationship between Job Enrichment and Employee’s Job Satisfaction


William S.Y. Pan, Ph.D., Dept.of Marketing & Quantitative Analysis, College of Business

University of New Haven, USA

Jack Werblow, Ph.D., Department of Public Management, College of Business University of New Haven, USA


In this paper we investigate the question whether and to what extent that an employer’s good job enrichment program impact on the level of employees’ job satisfaction? We focus our study on the

employees who have been on the job for at least one year.We further assume that the employer has already implemented a well-designed job enrichment program for many years.Our findings indicate that an enriched job program, at a minimum, empowers the employee to control over the way that job task is

accomplished.As a result, it can add to employees’ job satisfaction.We found that often a good job enrichment program do allow and encourage face to face exchange and interaction among employees in the organization, as well as to provide a more socially friendly and supportive workplaces environment in which employees can discuss issues or problems in confidence with their supervisor/peers.


16. Could Uncertainties Drive Customer – Supplier Relationships?


Fawzy Soliman

University of Technology Sydney, Australia


This paper proposes that organizational performance improvement could be achieved through improving the relationship between suppliers and customers. Accordingly, the paper proposes that

performance could be improved by properly managing uncertainties customers-suppliers relationships. In addition the paper proses that some of those uncertainties could lead give rise to differences (gaps) that are usually found between customers’ expectations and of suppliers perception with respect to services delivered.The paper also proposes that gaps in the relationship between customers and suppliers could be analysed using mapping techniques.The paper points to the possibility of finding perception gaps and expectation gaps in the interrelated value attributes of goods and/or services; namely quality, cost, and time of delivery of goods or services to customers. In addition, the paper suggests that those gaps may impact on the performance from the perspectives of quality, cost, and speed of delivery of the service. It is envisaged that this research could assist management in controlling cost and avoid wastage and improve organizational performance.

Keywords: management of customers’ expectations, management of suppliers’ perception, management of gap analysis


17. An Empirical Study on Customers’ Perception of C – Complaints and E-Complaints


Ajitha Angusamy, Ramaiyer Subramanian and

Kavitha Balakrishnan, Multimedia University, Malaysia


It is customary to have customers care cell or public relation cell in an organisation. The objective of this cell is to redress or air grievances from customers. To overcome complaints from customers, customer complaint behaviour (CCB) should be facilitated and customer complaint management ought

to be taken seriously. Consumer’s feedback and comment are important source of information to rectify the shortcomings in services and products. Traditional complaints are known as C-complaints. E-complaint on the other hand enables consumers to make complaints through electronic media such as internet. This study tries to find out differences in the consumers’ perception between c-complaint and e-complaint. The results indicated that customers still prefer c-complaint with respect to tangibility, service quality, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy.

Key words: Customer, Perception, C-complaint, E-complaint


18. Examining The Performance of Brand Indicators as A Key Driver for Brand Management: A Case Study of Shandong Province in China


Hongxia Liu

School of Accountancy

Central University of Finance and Economics,Beijing

P.R. China

Ali Salman Saleh

Accounting, Economics, Finance and Law Group

Swinburne University of Technology

Melbourne, Australia


Studies on examining brand performance indicators among Chinese enterprises have been very limited given the difficulties in obtaining data on brand management. Hence, the aim of this paper is to introduce a scientific and rational brand index evaluation system to investigate the brand performance

indicators of Chinese enterprises. This is a very important step to determine the strength and weaknesses of these indicators, this could well assist the relevant authority on how to improve brand competitiveness of Chinese enterprises. This scientific and rational brand index was developed using a sample of 60 Chinese firms in various region of China’s Shandong province. The empirical analysis shows that Chinese firms are still experiencing some weaknesses in regard to brand management and there are still some gaps in brand marketing, brand profitability and development capacity. This study suggests that strengthening

brand management and brand innovation capabilities is a vital step to build a strong brand.

JEL classification: M10, M13


19. Developing and Validating An Overall International Marketing Performance Scale


Ho Yin Wong, Deakin University, Australia

Email address:


The purpose of this chapter is to develop and validate a scale of the overall international marketing performance. Based on a review of the existing literature, the scale constructed to measure

international marketing performance used in this study included three factors; namely, finance, strategic and brand performance. A total of 315 Australian firms involved in international marketing

were surveyed. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were undertaken to validate the scale.Findings support the conceptualization that the overall international marketing construct consists of three factors. The present study contributes to the understanding of the measurement of the overall international marketing performance by empirically testing the dimensionality of this construct.

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ISSN: 1813-0534