ISSN: 1813-0534






Volume 6 No.2 April 2010 Edition

What Students Are Telling Us about Teaching: The Dangerfield Effect

M. June Allard and Carol P. Harvey, Assumption College, Worcester, MA ,USA
Kien-Quoc Van Pham, Humboldt State University, California ,USA
Merlin C. Simpson, Pacific Lutheran University, Tacoma, USA


This paper examines 1.) Changing perceptions about the service delivery of private college educations in terms of defining what students consider to be “respectful” and “disrespectful” teaching and 2.) The gender of the student as related to the genders of the teachers they selected as “respectful” and “disrespectful in terms of attitude, communication and pedagogy


Role of FASB 157 in the Financial Crisis: Impact on Investment Banks

Peter Harris,CPA,CFA, Paul R. Kutasovic, Ph.D. ,CFA
New York Institute of Technology,USA


The current financial crisis, which began in 2007, brought about the demise of the US investment banking industry. Many analysts attribute the speed at which customers and counterparties lost faith in the investment banks to mark-to-market accounting and the implementation of FASB 157. This study addresses the question of whether FASB 157 contributed to the failure of the investment banks. We document evidence that shows that the problems at the investment banks were due to poor investments and excessive leverage and not the accounting standards.

Keywords:Fair-value accounting, FASB 157, mark to-market, level 1, 2 and 3 assets, investment banks, leverage

Turnover and Mobility: The 30 Largest Korean Chaebols

Jeong Pyo Choi, Professor of Economics, Konkuk University, Seoul , Korea
Jonathan Willner, Professor of Economics, Oklahoma City University,USA


There is considerable support for the idea that large firms may use economic power, as measured by concentration, to influence political institutions leading to entrenchment. Indicators of successful entrenchment are turnover and mobility with in the top N-many firms.In Korea the unit of measure is chaebol instead of firm due to the unique nature of the Korean economy. This paper examines turnover and mobility in Korea from 1986-2002. It finds that turnover and mobility had been stable but has risen since the economic crisis of 1998. However, the very top 5 chaebol have not experienced this increase in turnover and mobility.This leads to the conclusion that the reforms of 1998 have had some impact, but entrenchment is still possible for the very largest chaebol.



Understanding The Mechanisms of The Red Queen in Strategic Management

Jaime Rubin DeCelis,University of Pittsburgh,Pittsburgh,USA
John Lipinski,Robert Morris University,Moon Township, PA,USA
Laura Crothers,Duquesne University,Pittsburgh,USA


Strategic Management has been primarily concerned with competitive advantage and
answering why some organizations are more competitive. The Red Queen theory focuses on competition from a co-evolutionary perspective and emphasizes the dynamic processes that make firms compete to the limits of their ability just to maintain their competitive position and avoid death. It is possible that the Red Queen theory has literally and excessively relied on Carroll's postulate and on the evolutionary perspective stating “mutation is an undesired outcome leading only to extinction”. We posit that, from strategic management perspective,there is another mechanism worth considering: the sense-making mechanism.'Now, here, you see, it takes all the running you can do to keep in the same place. If you want to get somewhere else, you must run at least twice as fast as that!' (Lewis Carroll, 1982, p. 104)





Examining The Relationship between Leadership Turnover and Team Performance

Robert P. Singh, Morgan State University,USA
Michael N. Ogbolu, Morgan State University,USA


Leadership turnover and group performance are important organizational behavior variables, but there are conflicting findings in the literature and just how they are related is not well understood. We hypothesized that there is a negative relationship between leadership turnover and team performance. Using National Football League data on coaching changes and team wins from 1998-2007, we found support for the negative relationship between the two constructs; however, the expected causal relationship between leadership turnover and future declines in team performance was not supported.Implications for practitioners and researchers, limitations, and future research directions are discussed

Applying Knowledge Management to the Operation and Management of Travel Agencies - A Case Study in Taiwan

Liu Jen-Min, Department of Tourism Management, Chia- Nan University of Pharmacy and Science Taiwan


In Taiwan, most travel agencies are either small-sized or medium-sized companies. Due to the low barriers to entry, the operation of a travel agency becomes very competitive and ends up with manpower complexity and diversity. Consequently, it turns out to be very difficult to create, transfer, practice and apply knowledge resources. This study aims to explore pertinent variables in the use of knowledge management in travel agencies by focusing on the dimensions of: (1) internalization, (2) externalization, (3)common-orientation and (4) combination, which are derived from Monaka and Takeuchi(1995). In addition, three individual-level dimensions will be explored: "personal intelligence network," "personal knowledge system," and "the effectiveness of implementing personal knowledge management."

According to cluster analysis, the extent of knowledge management is divided into three groups: (1) market polymath, (2) market follower, and (3) market professional. Likewise, an employee’s professional competence can be classified into three groups: (1) career veteran, (2)individual who needs to be refined, and (3) temporary worker. This study suggests that, in order to facilitate knowledge-sharing behavior among employees, travel agency corporate managers need to enhance their staffs’ understanding of knowledge sharing, strengthen its merits and evaluation, and help employees reduce factors that jeopardize knowledge sharing.These efforts will facilitate the development of staff members who feel confident and in control and are willing to upgrade their sharing of knowledge. Eventually, they will engage in knowledge sharing behavior. Company managers should also be actively considering the company vision and goals when bolstering their employees’ confidence and professional direction. With the vision of the company's goals in mind, employees can obtain useful and valid knowledge and apply it to their work and come up with innovative products that will help create the maximum profit for the company.



The Factors Associated with Chinese Own Brand Purchase Decisions:--A Case of Shanghai Grocery Sector

Wei Song, Ph.D. The School of Business and Economics, Thompson Rivers University, Canada


Research on the factors of customer own brand purchase decisions has been extensively examined in Western countries; especially in the United Kingdom, which represents the most advanced own brand market. However, it has not been fully explored whether these factors are also applied to non-Western markets such as China. This paper presents a study, which was conducted in Shanghai, China. The investigation was undertaken using case study and triangulation approaches. Semi-structured interviews and store observations were the primary methods adopted for this study. The documentation analysis was a supplemental method for detecting/correcting the errors or mistakes from interviews and observations. The key factors associated with Chinese own brand purchase decisions were discussed. Several international and managerial implications have been addressed. The results from the study are intended to offer some basic guidance in the arena of own brand research in China and build a basis for developing own brand strategy in a non-Western market.

Consumers Perceptions of the Marketing Decisions of Family Owned Businesses (FOB)

Sam C. Okoroafo and Anthony C. Koh, University of Toledo, USA


The purpose of this study was to determine consumers’ perceptions of the totality of family owned businesses’ (FOB) marketing decisions. Results and conclusions were based on a mail survey of consumers in Ohio, USA. Perceptions of sixteen parsimoniously selected marketing activities that create, capture, communicate, deliver, and exchange value to consumers were obtained. This results show that consumers generally perceive their activities favorably. Also, they are likely to respond favorably to product offerings and most other marketing activities. Managerial implications are drawn and presented from the findings


Changing the Basic Structure of the Retail System – Adaptability Transmigration Theory

Shen-Hua Chang Jinwen University of Science and Technology, Taiwan


Most advanced nations and international industries are moving towards “globalization.” The most effective way for an industry to “globalize” promptly and successfully is to develop a franchise system. In fact, franchises have had great success all over the world in the last one or two decades. Scholars have defined “franchise” differently. Taiwan's 7-ELEVEN has formed the most famous President Chain Store Company creating the small district including “ 7-ELEVEN Starbucks and Cosmed ”. So, this paper will give a new definition for the franchise model in Taiwan a brand new definition. The retail system became an “organic” entity that is circulating and creative, and the spirit and soul of “retail nature” will not change with time. Therefore, 「Adaptability Transmigration Theory」 has been developed and 「Organic Adaptability Transmigration Theory Interface」 has been constructed in this text to provide a new concept for retail structure.

Keywords:Adaptability Transmigration, Business District, Franchise, Globalization Organism,


Taiwan’s Chain Store Industry Moving toward GlobalizationA Case Study of 7-Eleven

I-Ching Chen, Jinwen University of Science and Technology, Taiwan


Internationalization of Taiwan’s enterprises had begun more than ten years before it entered the World Trade Organisation (WTO) just after Mainland China in 2002, but the process has picked up speed since then. Chain stores, Previously content to serve the domestic market, now saw the China market as its bridge to the global marketplace. The Taiwan market was also becoming saturated and intensely competitive. Yet Taiwan’s chain stores were not particularly known to have globalisation strategies that would sustain its global development, in contrast to the fast food chains of the USA or the retail chains of Japan. This paper examines whether 7-Eleven, the largest chain store in Taiwan, have the capability for globalisation. It also discusses what steps should be carried out toward globalisation and maps a possible strategy for successful penetration of new markets.

KeyWords:Chain industry, Globalization, Internationalisation, Soft System Methodology,Strategy



Put-Call Parity Econometric Model for Currency Options Market Efficiency Tests

Ariful Hoque, University of Southern Queensland, Australia


A new era in currency trading began in July 2007 with the launching of World Currency Options (WCO). The aim of this paper is to provide new evidence of the WCO market’s efficiency based on the no-arbitrage put-call parity (PCP) relationship. This study adapts the PCP relationship-compatible econometric approach to conquer the weaknesses of the traditional method for analyzing the validity of PCP. The overall findings of this paper imply that the WCO market is efficient even though it is in the settling curve, which will motivate market participants, including novice investors, to trade currency options for different purposes.

Sarbanes-Oxley Act(SOX)and Seasoned Equity Offering (SEO)Firms

Loretta Baryeh , Towson University,USA
Varda Yaari, Morgan State University,USA


Firms’ that issue seasoned equity offerings’ (SEO) have been found to engage in earnings management before the SEO. The Sarbanes and Oxley Act (SOX) was enacted mainly to curtail the managerial indiscretion and other related behavior in firms. We investigate the effect of SOX on the earnings management behavior of firms issuing SEOs and if the market reacts to the behavior of these firms. We find that discretionary accruals have declined after the SOX. Furthermore, the market reacts to earnings management around SEOs

Earnings Management and Initial Public Offerings:Evidence from The Bursa Malaysia Main Board

Boon Heng Teh,Multimedia University, Cyberjaya,Malaysia
Tze San Ong, University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia


This study has examined the role of discretionary current accruals in the Malaysian Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) market, especially Bursa Malaysia Main Board. The main purpose of the study is to investigate whether aftermarket stock price performance of Malaysian IPO firms influenced by earnings management practice, over the next one year subsequent to release of first annual report as a listed company. Furthermore, this study also looks at the initial and one year aftermarket market stock price performance of Malaysian IPO firms. The discretionary current accruals is used as a proxy to measure the degree of earnings management engaged by IPO firms whereas market-adjusted initial return and arithmetic mean return are respectively used to measure initial return on the first trading day and aftermarket stock price performance of the IPO firms during 12 months after the first annual report as a listed company becomes available. Using data from 40 firms that listed on Bursa Malaysia Main Board from 2002 to 2006, it is concluded that Malaysian IPOs do manipulate earnings in the first year as public companies.

Factors Impacting the Adoption and Use of ICT in the Malaysian SME Sector

Ali Salman Saleh,Victoria University,Victoria,Australia
Lois Burgess,University of Wollongong,Wollongong NSW,Australia


A review of extant literature reveals that little attention has been given to research into the level of ICT infrastructure among SMEs, as well as examining the factors that limit the use of ICT in these organizations. Earlier studies have mainly focused on the services sector. Hence, there is a need to conduct further empirical research across area range of industry sectors to better understand the challenges confronting SMEs that hinder the adoption and use of ICT. The aim of this paper is to conduct an empirical investigation to identify the barriers that limit the adoption of Information and Communication technology (ICT) among (SMEs),in Malaysia This investigation is conducted using a sample of 100 Malaysian firms. Despite the current government effort in regard to ICT incentives and grants, results reveal that the major hindrance for using ICT among Malaysian SME businesses include finance, employee education including ICT skills, high cost of ICT infrastructure and shortage of skilled human capital. This paper suggests, based on the empirical results that more work needs to be undertaken by government and policy makers to encourage ICT adoption among SMEs as competition from other countries, especially China and India is rising and this could be seen as a threat to Malaysian SMEs.

JEL classification: M10, M13
Keywords: ICT, SMEs, Technology Adoption, Malaysia
INTRODUCTION: SMEs in Malaysia have experienced rapid development


Comparison Analysis The Effectiveness of Government Agencies Export Assistance Programme on SME’s in Malaysia

Che Mohd Zulkifli, Faculty Business and Economic, Sultan Idris Education University, Malaysia

This paper analyze the effectiveness of Malaysian Industrial Development Authority (MIDA) and Malaysian External Trade Development Corporation (MATRADE).export assistance programs on Malaysian Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME). The mean and standard deviation scores showed that slight differences between the awareness amongst the SME of the ten types of assistance programs offered by MIDA and 28 exports assistance programs offered by MATRADE. Therefore, it shows that the existing export assistance programs are not reaching the SME. In order to increase the SME’s awareness of export assistance programs, MIDA and MATRADE needs to increase their efforts in pursuing promoting the export assistance programs effectively amongst the SME.

Keywords: small medium size industries; export assistance program



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ISSN: 1813-0534