ISSN: 1813-0534






Volume 13 No 2 November edition 2017


Volume 13*Number 2* November 2017

ISSN 1813-0534

1. Is Man-made Carbon Dioxide the Real Cause of Global Warming?�|Scientific Evidences and Ethical Debate

Hung, Jui-Chin, and Yen, Ghi-Feng (Corresponding Author)

Department of Business Administration

Chung Yuan Christian University



During its tenure as the leader of the United States, the Obama administration promoted the country・s participation in the Paris Agreement and enacted the Clean Power Plan. However, under the Trump administration, the U.S. has withdrawn from the Paris Agreement and plans to defund the Clean Power Plan. Established against the backdrop of the increasing attention that the United Nations (UN),climate summits, and the media are paying to the role that anthropogenic CO2 emissions play in the greenhouse effect, global warming, and extreme climates, the Paris Agreement is the first multinational treaty aimed at addressing global warming. However, debate over the existence of global warming is still ongoing. A total of 31,487 U.S. scientists (9,029 of whom have PhDs) have signed the Oregon Petition to demand that the U.S. government reject global warming agreements, and the International Conference on Climate Change (ICCC) has identified numerous studies that show no direct link between CO2 emissions and global temperature increases.This debate leads to a further question: Is it a scientific fact or propaganda that anthropogenic CO2 emissions are the main culprit of global warming? This study used scientific arguments to analyze the relationship between global warming and CO2 emissions and determine whether the allocation of carbon emission rights and the imposition of a carbon tax (i.e., a world tax) conform to the principles of justice. Moreover, this study discussed whether unthinkingly disseminating controversial information about international agreements to the general public through educational institutions and media outlets conflicts with ethics. It is concluded that although the UN and other superpowers promote corporate social responsibility earnestly, they should be more conscientious about their own responsibilities.

Keywords: Human-made CO2; Global Warming; Climate Change; Carbon Emission Rights; Carbon

Tax; Ethical Debate



2. Blockchain and Its Use in Clearing Securities Trades

Justin Gillen, MSF Email: Justin.Gillen@Ubalt.Edu

Joel N. Morse, Professor of Finance, University of Baltimore (



Blockchain is a powerful innovative software platform for a variety of applications, especially financial assets. For example, it is currently used by Bitcoin participants to track and record executed transactions. There is no doubt about the immense potential that DLT offers. The ability to accurately capture transaction information, log it correctly and chronologically, and archive and organize in an accessible format is critical for adoption. As firms and broker-dealers incorporate this software in their business functions, there are an abundance of questions will no doubt surface.

Indeed, the very future of cash is at stake. The ability of blockchain/DLT technology to perform consistently will be the key factor as firms enhance their current processes, lower the amount of operational time these processes currently take, and accurately track and portray transaction data.This approach is crucial in the evolution of the finance and banking industry


3. Achieving Business Sustainability by Stakeholder Management: What Is the Role of Organizational Learning?

Minyu Wu, Beijing Normal University-Hong Kong Baptist University United International College,



This paper attempts to examine the relationship between stakeholder management and corporate sustainability. Based on a review of the extant literature, a connection between stakeholder management and organizational learning was incorporated. According to this connection, a conceptual framework was further developed linking stakeholder management and organizational learning and strategic change. This framework demonstrates stakeholder engagement may have significant effects

on organizational learning. Influence from stakeholder interactions can further generate feed-forward and feedback learning flows, which may renew or reinforce the existing organizational routines, capabilities or core competences. The concept of stakeholder engagement highlights the importance of stakeholder thinking in strategy process, including engaging stakeholder relationships and building shared values. Drawing on the literature on corporate sustainability, stakeholder management,

organizational learning and strategic change, the conclusion is that stakeholder management plays an important role in leading organizations to sustainability in a dynamic environment; the journey of a company towards sustainability involves a multi-loop learning process and in each phase, there is a need of an appropriate strategy emerged from the learning process to fit the specific situation.

Key words: business sustainability, stakeholder management, organizational learning, strategic change


4. Adoption and Efficacy of Mobile Banking among Tech-Savvy Consumers

Prof. Dr. Seema Laddha,SIES College of Management Study , Navi Mumbai, India

Prof. Dr. Arjita Jain , NCRD・s Sterling Institute of Management Studies, Navi Mumbai, India


The shift towards mobile banking with more and more emphasis on the usage of mobile and computers for financial transactions is clearly evident in urban and semi-urban parts of India. With the government・s vision to transform India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy, today mobile banking has become a significant means of transactions. Peopleare using m-payment for

online shopping, to book movie/rail/flighttickets;and to paytheir bills by making m-payment through their debit/credit cards.The main objective of this study is to analyze the present status of mobile banking as well as to identify the demand drivers of mobile banking in India. To achieve the objective of the study a Descriptive Research was carried out.The study is based on primary data collected through structured questionnaire administered to 200 consumers through convenient sampling. Time-effective, safety, convenience, operational simplicity and ease of navigation were the key factors of the study. On SPSS Levene・s test for equality of variances was performed,Welch・s ANOVA was performed, the research findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between the frequency of using mobile banking and factors influencing m-banking adoption. Research findings revealed that the usage of mobile banking for specific purposes like bill payment, transportation, and purchase appeal on the specific websites has increased, yet there are many roadblocks .This paper also discusses the various steps that mobile banking providers should take in order to promote mobile banking in India.


5. How Organizations Can Leverage the Impact of Virtual Management?

Dr. Walied Askarzai, PhD Lecturer at Academies Australasia-Polytechnic,Australia

Bhuvan Unhelkar, South Florida University,USA


Virtual Organization (VO) is believed to have broken the mould of traditional workplace. Yet, the beliefs and views on this subject matter shape the managerial decisions and policies-decisions that have very real and practical consequences. It is therefore, imperative to develop an insight of how employees and their managers in VOs interact. This paper reports on a study conducted to explore the impact of a Virtual Management (VM) on employee behaviour. The empirical evidence in this paper is based on the surveys and interviews from Australian SMEs located in Greater Western Sydney (GWS) region. It is contended that employees in VOs are enthusiastic only when some traditional work norms are remained unchanged. The practical implication drives from this study is that VOs can leverage the impact of VM by conserving some aspects of traditional work norms.

Keywords: Virtual Employee, Virtual Management, Virtual Organization, SMEs


6. Impact of Employee Ownership on Organizational Performance:

A Mediating Role of Employee Satisfaction

Tariq Javed

University Pendidikan Sultan Idris



The onus of employee ownership towards organizational performance is growing among researchers and practitioners. This study examines the relationship between employee ownership and organizational performance, which is categorized in two segments; financial performance and productivity. Where, employee satisfaction has been identified as mediator of the relationship. Financial performance is measured through profitability ratios, and productivity is measured through average nominal productivity per person. The positive impact of employee ownership is reward for employees in financial terms, and right to participate in the decision making. Employees appraise, and feel contempt with the objects which belong to them. As most of the existing studies are based on developed countries, so this study is organized distinctively about the contribution of employee ownership in the developing countries like Pakistan, because this area has never been explored, therefore, this study is unique and one of its kind. The study proposes that; employee ownership positively impacts organizational performance, and work satisfaction mediates the relationship.Therefore, it can be argued confidently that insertion of employee ownership scheme in macroeconomic policies will also help to reduce the free rider problem and eventually will add to national productivity.

Keywords : employees・ ownership; employees・ satisfaction; financial performance; productivity;mediation;


7. Perspective of Functional Coupling in Systems Theory

�\ A Case Study of Working-days Policy in Taiwan

Tsao, Hui-Chun and Yen, Ghi-Feng (Corresponding Author)

Department of Business Administration

Chung Yuan Christian University



Earning profit is the most important goal of private enterprises, followed by their responsibility towards internal and external stakeholders, such as stockholders, employees, government departments, and local communities. Before pursuing CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility), one point must be acknowledged- enterprises must maintain survival first and then consider action for the good of other stakeholders. Democratic governments are voted by the people to plan, operate, and control affairs which may help to improve their welfare; therefore, governments・ policies are expected to be just and fair. People are voters and employees who can affect governments・ policies to defend their own rights and benefits through ballots. These three above-mentioned parties are looking for their own benefits but conflict in nature by their different standpoints.

This paper discusses the different ethical views (human rights, justice, and utilitarianism) and thinking of governments, enterprises, and employees. We first define business ethics and the difference between business ethics and CSR, then we explore the relationship between enterprises and employees, and the impact of governments・ welfare policies. This paper analyzes the working-days policy in Taiwan using systems theory and tries to describe how the actions and reactions caused by different ethical views impact this system constructed by governments, enterprises, and employees.We also infer the reactions enterprises may have to maintain their existence.

By sourcing news information, research articles and related theories, this paper tries to figure out the contradictories and arguments of the working-days policy using the perspective of functional coupling in systems theory. Furthermore, we aim to provide a clear analytical framework to highlight the current imbalance in the situation and make some suggestions that may prove beneficial.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Systems Theory; Functional Coupling; Working-days Policy


8. Factors Affecting Perceived Risk of Using CKMWeb Tools in Malaysian Hospitality Industry

Sreenivasan Jayashree,Shariar Mohseni

Multimedia University,Malaysia

Arumugam Seetharaman

S.P.Jain School of Global Management,Singapore.


This research investigates the factors affecting perceived risk of using CKM web tools, which ultimately affect customers・ purchase intention in the hotel website. The main independent variable is website characteristics. Web site characteristics are further defined by three constructs, which are website brand, website quality and, website security. In addition to this, perceived risk and trust play as a mediator between the independent variable and the dependent variable which is purchase intention. The research focuses on the hospitality industry in Malaysia. The empirical study will be

based on a survey of 300 customers who had experience with CKM web tools of hotel websites. Multiple regression carried out for data analysis.

Keywords: CKM web tool, website characteristics, e-commerce, Hospitality industry


9. A Study of Public Vocational Training in Technical and Vocational Schools in the Taoyuan-Hsinchu-Miaoli Region of Taiwan

Chun-Se Chen

Director, Department of Continuing Education ,Hsinchu Kuangfu Senior High School




Currently, Taiwan・s vocational training is conducted by the Workforce Development Agency(WDA) of the Executive Yuan・s Ministry of Labor (MOL). Vocational training programs involve self-managed vocational training, training programs managed by commissioned firms, training managed through corporate cooperation, training managed cooperatively with communities, vocational training managed through subsidies to local governments, and training managed by commissioned schools or other relevant institutions; the proportion of overall recipients of training receiving vocational training exceeds 50%. Because of the shocks of Taiwan・s declining birth rate, vocational and technical schools are applying their resources to expanding a variety of cooperative education programs, mainly through public vocational training committees. In the case of the Taoyuan-Hsinchu-Miaoli region, these programs primarily involve pre-employment training for the unemployed and industrial talent investment on-the-job training programs.

School-operated public vocational training has long been studied by researchers, and vocational and technical schools have each faced different problems and difficulties. This study uses the :plan,; :design,; :do,; :review,; and :outcome; elements of the Talent Quality-Management System (TTQS) to construct an analytical hierarchy process (AHP), with participating vocational and technical schools in the Taoyuan-Hsinchu-Miaoli region serving as its research subjects. This study uses surveys and interviews with experts and managers in respective industries to collect data; qualitative analysis is used to study the topic of public vocational training.

After analysis, this study concluded that interviewees generally agree that schools should be responsible for manpower training. School infrastructure, environment, and teacher resources all meet standards required for managing high-quality public vocational training programs, but schools encounter a variety of problems related to knowledge of procurement methods, administrative documents, employment counselling efficacy, and opportunity costs. School strategies generally aim

for stable management of these programs; if the school, organizing department, and employers are able to make improvements, this is helpful for improving the efficacy of industry-school cooperative training programs and can improve issues related to labor shortfalls and personnel functionality.

Keywords: Public vocational training, vocational training outsourcing, vocational training, industry-school cooperative training, professional continuing education


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ISSN: 1813-0534