ISSN: 1813-0534






Volume 13 No 1 April edition 2017


Volume 13*Number 1* April 2017

ISSN 1813-0534



1. The Effect of Organizational Commitment in the Transformational Leadership Relationship and Employee                           Job Performance


Syamsul Ma・arif, Universitas Airlangga,Indonesia.


Anis Eliyana, Universitas Airlangga,Indonesia.





Until now, leadership behaviors in some studies are stated to be able to affect the improvement of employees・ job performance. This research focuses on the discussion regarding antecedent variable of transformational leadership with its effect to job performance of the middle-level leaders at the government organization. Variables in this study are Transformational Leadership, Work Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Job performance. The samples used in this study are 30 respondents as 75% of the population. The technique used to collect the data from the respondents is questionnaires to minimize any interpretation differences between respondents and the researcher. Further, analysis model used is structural equation model (SEM) with the basis of theory and concept, from the package of Partial Least Square (PLS) program so that the results are accurate. The significance of this study is to contribute the thoughts theoretically, empirically, and practically on the growth of human resources science.

Keyword: Organizational Commitment, Transformational Leadership, Job Performance


2.  A Comparative Analysis of Service Trade Structure of India and China


Veena Keshav Pailwar, Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur,India





Service sector accounts for maximum share in the GDP of India and China, which are the two major economies of the world in terms of purchasing power parity. Inspite of very high share of the service sector in the GDP, the trade in services to GDP ratio is very low in these two countries, which implies that the growth of the service sector in these economies is primarily driven by the domestic market, and the two economies have not been able to reap vast international market in services. The analysis of the service trade structure of India and China, indicates that India has comparative and competitive advantage only in :other services;. It has a very narrow service export basket and it is more vulnerable to external shocks than China. India also has lower intra-industry trade than China, which implies that China is more capable of absorbing foreign technology than India, and Chinese population has exposure to greater variety of services than India. The analysis also indicates that though the two countries are competitors in quite a few services in the international market, there are there also substantial complementarities and intra-industry trade in some services. The paper suggests that for higher growth of service sector, the two countries needs to cooperate with each other by allowing better access to each other・s services. As both the economies have huge market size, larger intra-industry trade would enable them to enjoy benefits of economies of scale. India has to put more efforts in improving its position in international market for services as its services export basket is very narrow, its intra-industry industry trade is lower, and there is growing competition from China.

3. Cyber-Illiterate Manager-It Does Not Have To Be

Peter Harris, Samuel Kohn

New York Institute of Technology




Managers lacking cyber-security skills are cyber-illiterates. Cyber-illiterates are in danger of becoming victims. Breaches of security keep growing each year at an alarming rate. According to a study done by Carnegie Mellon, this rate has grown from 2,244 incidents is 1985 to over 85,000 in 2003 and far exceeds 100,000 in 2012.

The challenge for managers is awareness.  By making users aware of security issues, users are better able to protect not only themselves but the organization as a whole.  McCumber states "education, training and awareness may be our most prominent security measures" (2005, p. 106).

However, McCumber (2005, p. 106) while letting us know that it is important and needed, he does not provide  what awareness managers need to be aware of is so they can provide a survival impact on their  enterprise. Similarly, Okenyi and Owens state that security awareness "brings about behavioral change," which is the component of the awareness definitions that Siponen (2000), Rudolph (2009), Willett (2008), Hansche (2001a) and Kratz and Vines (2001) leave out (2007, p. 302).  However, Okenyi and Owens (2007) fail to discuss the knowledge basis of what managers・ security awareness is required so they would not be cyber-illiterate managers.

NIST Special Publication 800-50 view is that "security awareness efforts are designed to change behavior or reinforce good security practices" (2003, p. 8). According to NIST (NIST SP800-50, 2003, p. 8), a security awareness program's first objective is to disseminate information to individuals about information security-related topics. However, they do not provide what managers need to know so that they will not be cyber-illiterate.

In this paper, we provide an educational framework for the enterprise to make managers aware to cyber threats so that they will not be cyber-illiterate and be sensitized to manage information security as an ongoing process of exercising due care and due diligence to protect information, and information systems, from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, destruction, modification, or disruption or distribution. The never ending process of information security involves ongoing training, assessment, protection, monitoring & detection, incident response & repair, documentation, and review.

4.  An Ethical Discussion on Zika Virus Outbreak, Microcephaly and GM MosquitoesXA Precaution Principle Perspective

Ya-Wen Lee

Doctoral Student, Department of Business Administration, Chung Yuan Christian University,Taiwan.E-mail:

Ghi-Feng Yen

Professor (Corresponding Author), Department of Business Administration; Director, Research Center of Corporate Social Responsibility, Chung Yuan Christian University,Taiwan.E-mail:




Recently there are many headline news broadcast worldwide on cases of Zika virus and microcephaly with a status of :spreading explosively.; Before the confirmation of causal relationship between the two, locally, the Brazilian government took actions by sending thousands of soldiers to spread insecticide to kill mosquitoes and suggestions not to be pregnant before resolution was announced; then globally, the worldwide announcements were made by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the public fear level was significantly raised and bio-technology corporations are ready to develop vaccines and the use of GM mosquitoes.

However, there are researchers raised questions and concern on other possible causal associations between Zika virus spreading and GM mosquitoes. This study will discuss: (1) the concerns on the unnecessary elevation of public fear level in Zika virus-Microcephaly event. (2) the reasonable doubles on other :coincidences; and associations around the Microcephaly epidemic in Brazil. (3) the necessity of application of precaution principle before authorities making announcements and execution of its action and prevention plan under an unclear situation. And an ethical discussion was made.


5.  Emerging Market Stakeholder Impact of Pharmaceutical Drug Patent Expiration


Professor Kurt. A. April, PhD, Aisha Tape, MBA, Researcher

University of Cape Town

South Africa



This qualitative phenomenological research project focused on the impact of pharmaceutical drug patent expiration on various stakeholders in South Africa, viz., pharmaceutical companies (originator and generic), medical doctors, pharmacists and patients. A key objective was to understand how each stakeholder group was affected by the loss of drug patent and subsequent entry of generic drugs. The entry of generic drugs has a substantial effect on the originator company, driving them to enforce various marketing strategies to mitigate this effect. The research takes a closer look at strategies employed by originator companies during this period. Furthermore, the research explores the relationships amongst stakeholders, and how it influences their decision-making process when it comes to originator and generic drugs. The research also acknowledges the health challenges that exists in South Africa, and the impact that it has on the pharmaceutical and health sector.


Key words:Healthcare; Drug patent expiration; Emerging market; South Africa; Stakeholders; Accessibility

6.  Cigar Butt Investing in the Taiwan Stock Exchange (TWSE)

Tyrone Panzer L. Chan Pao

Financial Management Department (FMD), De La Salle University (DLSU)

Manila, Philippines ;





This research back-tested the strategy of investing in stocks with low price to book ratio on the Taiwan Stock Exchange (TWSE) from May 2006 to May 2015. All listed companies in the TWSE were ranked based on this ratio and the stock prices in the current year were compared to the following year from 2006 to 2015. The Year on Year (YoY) percentage change in the stock prices was then tabulated. The stocks were then grouped into equal-weighted portfolio deciles, with stocks with the lowest price to book ratio grouped in the 1st decile and stocks with the highest price to book ratio in the 10th decile.


Backtest results suggest that investing in stocks with low price to book ratio, on average, beat the returns of the Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index (TAIEX) even on a risk-adjusted return basis.


The consensus explanation for this outperformance lies in human behavioral biases. Indeed, buying stocks selling on the cheap as measured by this ratio requires investors to be contrarians, which is very hard to do as people find comfort in conformity.


Keywords: Back-testing; Value investing; Cigar butt investing; Price to book ratio; Taiwan Stock Exchange


7.  Key for Being Aging Intellectual Capital

Samudyuti Ray,VGSoM, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur,India


The first objective of this study is to know about aging and population facts related to it. Secondly, the study has been conducted to understand the approach of active aging and how it is helping the aging population to be considered as valuable resources because of being active, competent and productive in older age.Lastly, the aim of this study is to know about how thinking older people as a valuable resources helping them to be considered as an aging intellectual capital .For this purpose unstructured interview method has been chosen for getting an subjective view about the study .In short, the outcome of the study is that the aging people can be productive even after retirement provided they are active and competent.

KEY WORDS V aging, active aging, intellectual capital, aging intellectual capital

8.  Application of Fuzzy Inference System to Understand the Intention to Adopt Cloud Computing for A Supply Chain Network

Sonia Jagdish Kushwaha, Kashi Naresh Singh

Operations Management, Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow, India.;





Cloud computing emerges as a rapidly evolving technology and proves to be beneficial for supply chain network. Companies should identify its information processing needs and abilities for migrating from traditional supply chain to a cloud supply chain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate how an organization・s information processing requirement (IPR) and Information processing capabilities (IPC) combine to affect the intention to adopt cloud computing technologies as an aid to electronic supply chain management systems. Specifically, the paper evaluates the extent to which factors like supply chain complexities (SCC), organization・s entrepreneurial culture (OEC), infrastructure compatibility (IC) and application functionality (AF) affect the intention to adopt cloud computing for improving the supply chain performance. This work incorporates Linguistic Ordered Weighting Average (LOWA) operator to aggregate different aspects of the above-mentioned factors and adopts Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) independently at two stages to finally understand the intention of adopting cloud technologies. We have developed a technique which tries to bridge the gap between the theoretical framework and the practical aspect thereof and helps practicing managers take decisions on adoption of cloud computing. The technique is further illustrated with the help of two firm cases drawn from automobile and aerospace industries


9.  Social Media Fostering Small Business and Entrepreneurs in the Gulf Region


Anas Al Bakri

Assistant Professor

Management and Marketing Department (DMM)

College of Business and Economics (CBE),Qatar University






This study explores the motive and benefits that the small businesses and entrepreneurs in the Gulf Countries derive from the adoption of social media. The study develops the research objectives to enhance a greater understanding of how the small business and entrepreneurs in the gulf countries foster social media to achieve the competitive market advantages. The research collects primary and secondary data to answer the research questions and tests the hypothesis. The research collects and analyzes data through the quantitative technique, which refers to the systematic investigation of empirical data using the mathematical and statistical tools to test the hypothesis. The researcher uses the survey method to collect data from 1000 small business owners and entrepreneurs in the Gulf region. The study uses the Likert scale as the survey instrument. The study investigated the extent the small business and entrepreneurs in the Gulf countries adopt social media to decrease costs, increase customer relationships and enhance product expansion. The results of the primary data provide the contrary findings, it is revealed that large percentages of small businesses and entrepreneurs in the GCC are currently adopting social media to decrease costs, improve customer relations and expand the product. The findings have shown the small business and entrepreneurs in the GCC have understood the importance of  social media for their business advantages, which has been confirmed by the results where more than 80% of the small business and entrepreneurs use the social media to enhance customer relations. Additionally, the study demonstrates that more than 80% of the small business and entrepreneurs in the Gulf countries use social media to decline costs, expand market shares increase sales, and enhancing effective communication with the customer.


Keywords: Small business, Entrepreneurs, Social media, Expand market, Customer relations, Competitive advantages


10.  Reassurance of Family Decision-Making and Intergeneration Influence on Consumer Buying Behavior of Shopping and Convenience Goods

Dr. Kirti Arekar

K.J. Somaiya Institute of management Studies & Research, Mumbai, India.

Swati Kulkarni

SIES Institute of Management, Mumbai, India

Dr. Rinku Jain

K.J. Somaiya Institute of management Studies & Research, Mumbai,India.

Dr. R. Srinivasan

Jamlalal Bajaj Institute of Management, Mumbai, India.



To test for IGI, it is investigated if parent's brand image perceptions, brand consideration, brand preference and loyalty (behavioral and attitudinal) have a significant influence on their child's brand awareness, image, consideration, preference, and loyalty. In addition to these main effects, gender (of the child) and family communication patterns are expected to influence IGI. This research is an effort to identify the impact of intergeneration effect on buying behavior of two types of shopping and three types of convenience goods models were developed. Five models benefit to understand the intergeneration influence in adult buying behavior with respect to shopping and convenience goods. The first two models were developed for consumer buying behavior of shopping goods i.e. kitchen and domestic appliances and other three models were established to understand the consumer buying behavior of convenience goods i.e. skin care, hair care, and oral care products. Data were collected from a sample of 1545 respondents from India. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify the reliability and validity of the measurement models. And, the path analysis is also carried out to understand the impact of intergeneration influence on consumer buying behavior. The findings support the previous studies that the intergeneration influence having the positive impact on consumer buying behavior of shopping and convenience goods. For buying domestics, appliances, oral care and hair care products the decision of elders influence the buying behavior of children's. But while buying kitchen appliances and skin care products elders decisions does not affect children buying behavior. So we can conclude that intergeneration influence is present for domestic appliances, oral care and hair care products.

Keywords: Intergenerational Influence, socialization theory, family communication, shopping goods.

11.  A Study of Employees・ Perception :In Relation to Banking Alternative Delivery Channels and Customer Satisfaction

Prof. (Dr.) Neha Gupta

Faculty, Marketing Department

K. J. Somaiya Institute of Management Studies & Research

Vidyanagar, Vidyavihar,







The study concentrates on employees・ (internal customers・) perception about alternative delivery channels such as ATMS, Internet banking, mobile banking, SMS banking for understanding customer satisfaction of Indian Public Sector Banks (PSBs). Data were collected from 795 respondents by way of simple random sampling. The study emphasizes on the understanding of employees・ perception influencing eBanking products and services along with customer satisfaction. It has been found that demographic variables (age groups, annual income, qualification, gender and profession) influence employees・ perception for feedback through delivery channels. In addition, majority of employees (internal customers) respondents opined that bank・s Internet Banking and Mobile Banking is secure. Bank has a system of benchmarking for customer satisfaction for delivery channels. About one-third respondents are not aware of bank・s loyalty schemes for delivery channels and two-third respondents told that banks are using alternative delivery channels for smooth implementation of Government initiatives like Financial Inclusion (FI) now it is known as Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojna (PMJDY). Similar type of studies may also be made for other banking sectors.

Keywords: Alternative Delievery Channels, Customers・ Perception, Demographic, Customer Satisfaction

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ISSN: 1813-0534