ISSN: 1813-0534






Volume 10 No 2 August edition 2014


Volume 10*Number 2* AUGUST 2014

ISSN 1813-0534

1. Foreign Direct Investment and Total Factor Productivity in Vietnam:An Empirical Investigation


Vo Thi Trung Trinh,Information Division,Department of Planning and Investment,Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam

Ali Salman Saleh( Author for correspondence),Notre Dame University,Louaize, Lebanon

Reetu Verma,University of Wollongong,Wollongong, Australia



This paper investigates the relationship between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), Research and Development (R&D), Human Capital (HC) and Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth in Vietnam during the period of 1990-2010. The relationship is examined using the Narayan and Popp (2010) unit root test with two structural breaks and the Autoregressive Distributed Lag cointegration approach. The findings indicate that a short-run positive relationship exists between FDI, R&D and TFP growth in Vietnam during this period. The results also reveal that human capital (HC) have a negative impact on TFP in Vietnam in both the short and long-run. Measures are suggested in order to enhance TFP growth and sustainable growth for the Vietnamese economy.


Key words: Total Factor Productivity (TFP), Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), Research and Development (R&D), Human capital (HC), Vietnamese economy, policy implications


2. Environmental Governance: A Case Study in Singapore


Huong Ha, UON Singapore (University of Newcastle, Australia, Singapore campus)




This article discusses a multi-sector governance model for environmental management with three governance approaches corresponding with the level of government intervention and the level of non-state actors’ participation. It explains how governance works in a context where democratic processes/opportunities are limited and where state-based approaches dominate, using Singapore as a case study. It also examines how non-state sectors’ participation affects the governance outcome in Singapore.  Positive and negative lessons from the Singapore experience, regarding how to balance between democratic development and environmental management, may benefit other city-states.  


Key words: City state, environmental sustainability, multi-sector governance model, participation, state-based approach, Singapore



3. Carbon Emission Reduction Policy in Australia: Lessons and Implications


Ariful Hoque, Murdoch University, Australia

Paul Sergius Koku, Florida Atlantic University, United States




· The electricity companies are the big carbon emitters in Australia.

· The carbon tax policy generates additional government revenue.

· The carbon pollution reduction scheme is useful to reduce CO2 emissions in long-run.

· Energy policies and economic policies are intertwined.

· Energy policies driven by political decisions do have investment consequences.




The political havoc caused by the carbon emission reduction policy in Australia started on 30 April when the opposition leader Kevin Rudd proposed Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS) and ended up on 24 February 2011 with the Julia Gillard Government announced the Clean Energy Bill (CEB). This study uses the event study technique to analyze carbon emitter’s abnormal stock return as a “gauge” to discuss the advantages and disadvantages in implementing the CPRS and CEB policies in Australia. Since the electricity companies Santos and Origin are on the list of Australia’s top 50 carbon emitters and hold the largest shares in Australian Stock Exchange, we used them as a sample of big carbon emitters in the study. The overall results indicate that the big carbon emitters do not support the CEB as they are heavily taxed under this policy for their carbon emission. They prefer CPRS policy which forces them to buy emission rights when they exceed their allocated quota. Furthermore, this policy assists them to reduce the carbon emission gradually by adopting better technology.  These findings have two main implications: (1) carbon tax under CEB policy generates additional government revenue. (2) The CPRS facilitates carbon emission reduction in long-run.


4. Exploring Antecedents of Successful International Knowledge Transfer through Strategic Alliance: Evidence from China
Dr. Feng Tian* and Prof. Amir Mahmood, Newcastle Business School, University of Newcastle, Australia

*Correspondence author: Dr. Feng Tian, Lecturer in International Business, Newcastle Business School, University of Newcastle Australia. Email address: Office Number: +61249215981. Address: Level 3, University House, Auckland Street, Newcastle, Australia, NSW2300.


This study attempts to fill the current research gaps pertaining to the antecedents and consequences of successful international knowledge transfer through strategic alliance in a transition economy context. The research also highlights the theoretical frameworks that examine linkages between antecedents of the transfer of knowledge, contractual channels, and firm knowledge transfer performance in China. This research is undertaken in the context of the unprecedented rapid growth of the Chinese economy as well as an explosion of research and theorising on the knowledge economy and its implications for knowledge management and knowledge transfer.

Keywords: Strategic alliances, Chinese economy, Knowledge Management, Knowledge transfer, Chinese firms


5. Understanding Spirituality at Work, Organizations and in Management

Archbishop Dr. Thabo Makgoba, PhD, University of Cape Town, South Africa

Professor Kurt A. April, PhD, University of Cape Town & Ashridge Business School

Dr. Akram Al Ariss, PhD, Toulouse Business School, France



Spirituality in the context of work is increasingly gaining an importance in business and management research (Doran and Natale, 2011; Kutcher et al., 2010). This requires questioning the meanings and practice of spirituality in organizations. We contribute to the understanding of spirituality at work and in organizations by answering three main questions. These are: 1) What is spirituality?; 2) What is workplace spirituality?; and 3) Is the spiritual compatible with work organizations?.Our search for answers to these three questions has led us to a complex picture. Our chapter is structured to respond to these three questions in this same order.Our findings reveal three broad categories of spirituality. First, there are those authors whom we broadly put into the palliative category of spirituality. These include most religious mystics who wrote on spirituality (Merton, 1961; Keating, 1999; Nouwen, 1994b), as well as some current writers in the field (Carson, 1992; Gibbons, 2000; Runcorn, 2006; Fluker, 2003). Their views of spirituality tended to centre on the individual, and the individual’s longings or quest for self-actualization (Kellemen & Peltonen, 2005). In contrast to these palliative writers, there is a second group whose views can be said to be accommodationist in orientation (Nolan, 2006a; Wilber, 1998). These writers acknowledge that the phenomenon of spirituality lacks sufficient conceptuality, particularly as it relates to the workplace, pastoral care, and phenomenological and existential issues. They integrate an emphasis on a deity and palliative care with consideration of the communal context, thereby offering a continuum from the individual to the community, rather than an either/or model. The middle or “via media” authors view spirituality as a religious “accommodationist orientation” that places the individual’s search for interiority in a broader communal context (Thurman, 1984; Nolan, 2006a; Williams, 2004; Gibbons, 2000). Finally, writers the third category are suspicious of an inclusive, global spirituality (Carrette & King, 2004), especially when it seems to be religion repackaged. They reject the “accommodationist orientation” and argue for a spirituality that is devoid of any religious connections. It is important to note that this chapter is part of a larger study conducted by the first author. The larger study is on African workplace spirituality in South African mines. For the purpose of this paper, we decided to focus on offering a conceptual understanding of spirituality at work, organizations and in management.

6. Impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on Job Outcomes: Does Knowledge Sharing Matter?

Zhou (Joe) Jiang, Central Queensland University, Australia




This article examines the effects of two ICT related factors, ICT utilization and perceived ease of ICT usage, on two job outcomes, job satisfaction and work effectiveness. On a theoretical basis, the author proposed that these effects could be mediated by knowledge sharing. A total of 246 usable responses from full-time employees working in China were analyzed using hierarchical regression analyses, which were furthered confirmed by Sobel test and bootstrap-based PROCESS analysis. Results showed that both job satisfaction and work effectiveness were positively related to ICT utilization and perceived ease of ICT usage. Employees’ knowledge sharing orientation significantly mediated the relationships of job satisfaction with ICT utilization and ease of ICT usage, as well as the relationships of work effectiveness with these two factors. The present study provides further understanding of the mechanism underlying the influences of ICT on employee workplace issues.




7.   Power Differential And Employee Responses to Perceptions of Non-fulfilment by the Organization of Its Psychological Contract Obligations

Dr Wayne O’Donohue, Griffith University, Australia

Associate Professor Martin Grimmer and Teo Hwe Teq, University of Tasmania, Australia




This study aims to explore how an individual’s psychological contract type and power distance orientation combine to shape the behavioural response to perceptions of non-fulfilment by the organization of its PC obligations. A theoretical model is developed and four hypotheses are tested using data collected by the administration of a survey questionnaire to a sample of 223 business students at an Australian university. The results indicate that when considered at the level of the individual, power distance orientation and psychological contract type can be combined to predict an individual’s likely behavioural response in terms Exit, Voice, Loyalty and Neglect.



8. The Impact of Organizational Communication on Person-organization Fit


Pei-Ling Chang, Ph.D. Student, Graduate Institute of International Business Administration, Chinese Culture University, Taiwan

Lecturer, Department of International Trade, Jinwen University of Science and Technology




Effective organizational communication can nurture benign relationship between an organization and its employees, and, at the same time, promote morale and trust within an organization. On the adverse, ineffective organizational communication may cause suspicions or doubts of employees against an organization, which may results in reduced productivity. This study investigates the impact that organizational communication has on person-organizational fit through a questionnaire survey sent to various industries and correlation analysis on the data gathered. The result shows that upward, downward, and horizontal organizational communication are significantly correlated with person-organizational fit, while gender works as a moderating variable in between. Moreover, this study finds that in the female data set, three types of organizational communication have significant impact on person-organization fit.

Key Words: organizational communication, person-organization fit



9. Global Value Chains and the Competitiveness of Canadian Manufacturing SMEs


Muhammad Mohiuddin, Assistant Professor of International Business, Thomson Rivers University, Kamloops, BC, Canada.

Zhan Su, Professor of Strategy and International Business and Director, Stephen A. Jarislowsky Chair on International Business, Faculty of Administrative Sciences, Laval University, Quebec, Canada.






The creation of global value chains (GVCs) has changed the dominant manufacturing paradigm, shifting focus away from producing complete goods and toward manufacturing activities or tasks that are organized along trans-border value chains called global production networks (GPNs). This paper describes the state of the art of Canadian small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) in the manufacturing sector, as well as their competitive strategic orientation to production in the context of the GVC framework. It presents an analysis of data from the manufacturing industry in Canada, the World Trade Organization (WTO), and the Organization for Economic Co-ordination and Development (OECD), and demonstrates that the competitiveness of Canadian manufacturing sectors in which Canada’s natural resources are not sufficient as raw materials is highly dependent on participation in GVCs. Through exploration of Canadian participation in GVCs, this study emphasizes their strategic importance for Canadian manufacturers. It concludes that the competitiveness of Canadian manufacturers depends on their integration into fragmented production chains within GVCs. It also finds that their overall manufacturing competitiveness depends on their participation in collaborative production networks involving both local production and foreign activities. Manufacturing SMEs need to focus on activities and tasks in which they have comparative advantages, and procure intermediate components from foreign sources through competitive market-based arrangements. This study recommends that re-industrialization policies be developed within a co-industrialization framework that includes complementary firms across geographic space, and that is not based on the “local vs. foreign” mindset of the past. The formulation of public policy should thus focus on facilitating exchanges among actors engaging in complementary activities and increasing collaboration among private sectors.


Keywords: Comparative Advantage, Global Value Chain, Canadian Manufacturing, SMEs, Intermediate Components.




10. Customer Value Propositions and Value Capture: An Empirical Analysis of Manufacturing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

Vijaya Thyil, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia





This study aims to explore and analyse how small and medium-sized enterprises in the manufacturing sector in Australia capture value, by an in-depth study of their customer value propositions. A multiple case study research design involving semi-structured interviews and qualitative data analysis of the narratives of individual cases forms the basis for cross-case conclusions. Findings demonstrate that value propositions are a bundle made up of fast delivery of a high quality offering developed through co-creation and continuous innovation, such that the end product/service often exceeds customer expectations. The process by which the firms operationalize their value propositions is shown to be unique to each firm. The major triggers for change are the changing needs of their customers ranging from basic product needs to unanticipated needs, with the firms fine-tuning their value propositions. Very close personal relationships with customers and suppliers is seen to be a necessary condition for value co-creation. Implications for theory and practice and future research directions are provided.


Key words:

Customer value propositions, Manufacturing, Small and medium-sized enterprises, Australia, Qualitative method 


11. Drivers of  Consumer Attitudes and Their Impact on Fast Food Outlets in India

Swaminathan .T.N. , Great Lakes Institute of Management, Chennai, India

Viswanathan.P.K., Great Lakes Institute of Management, Chennai, India



Fast food is emerging as an option in developing countries . Dining out  has become very popular in these countries on account of changes in working life , social life and habits . Socializing with peers, colleagues, friends and  neighbors for business or social purposes has also become important . These factors have   induced  a  move  away  from  traditional cooking at home to dining out and consuming fast foods . India is one of the fastest developing fast food markets of the world thanks to the rapid urbanization  and changing lifestyle. Most of the past reasearch  studies on fast food have focussed on variables such as magery, price, deliverables, servicescape  of the restaurants etc... However there is not much of substantive research  on the social and motivational context and aspects of consumer preferences and behaviour .Therefore, after reviewing the literature available and the gaps , this research was undertaken to provide consumer insights on what drives the consumer preferences and frequency of visit to fast food outlets . The findings of this research indicate  that  people you go out with , preference for  snacks, dinner, lunch and promotional messages in outdoor media impact the choice of consumer visit to an outlet but do not impact the frequency of the visit to a fast food outlet.


Key Words: Fast Food, Dining Out , Consumer Preferences , Socializing,  Indian consumer, Factor Analysis, Anova, R square.



12. The Influence of Environmentally Orientated Marketing Strategies on Corporate Image and Customer Loyalty The Moderating Role of Consumers' Environmental                    Concerns


Ru-Yu Wang, Ghi-Feng Yen, Hsin-Ti Yang(Corresponding author), Yi-Hsuan Lin

Department of Business Administration

Chung Yuan Christian University,




The purpose of this study is to try to explore the influence of environmentally orientated marketing strategies (EOMS), in addition to the green orientated buying behaviors identified by previous research, on corporate image and customer loyalty as well as the moderating effects of consumers’ environmental concerns on these relationships. The findings indicated that: (1) corporate environmental appeals have positive influences on both corporate image and customer loyalty; (2) consumers’ environmental concerns have no moderating effect on the relationship between EOMS and customer loyalty; (3) however, consumers’ environmental concerns do moderate the relationship between EOMS and corporate image; while consumers with low level of environmental concerns were moderated more than those with high environmental concerns. These findings raise important issues on the practice of corporate social responsibility (CSR) including that consumers with high level of environmental concerns, those who have higher standard and expectations, have low sensitivity to corporate environmental appeals’ activity.

Keywords: Environmentally Orientated Marketing Strategies (EOMS), Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Corporate Image, Customer Loyalty, Consumers' Environmental Concerns


13. An Empirical Study on Barriers Encountered by Exporting Organizations in Malaysia


Jayanty Kuppusamy, Faculty of Business,  Multimedia University (Malacca Campus), Malacca, Malaysia,

R.N. Anantharaman, Faculty of Business, Multimedia University (Malacca Campus), Malacca, Malaysia,




Exporting is acknowledged to be beneficial because of its contribution towards economic development. As such, governments encourage organisations to export.  Achieving successful export performance however, can be hindered due to barriers. There is a necessity for organisations to identify barriers that negatively impact their export performance. The objective of the study is to ascertain the barriers that have impact on  performance in exporting organisations. A total of 1,439 questionnaires were sent to exporting organisations. The executives in charge of export activities of the manufacturing companies were contacted to participate in this research. 212 executives returned the questionnaires which formed the basis for the analysis. Multiple regression analysis was conducted and the results revealed that external barriers and production barriers have significant influence on export performance.

Keywords: barriers, export performance, marketing, finance, external




14. An Essay on Aspects of Probability in Marketing Strategy

Dr. Nagasimha Balakrishna Kanagal, Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore, India



A major area of the use of probability in marketing strategy is in market management, specifically in market analysis for the estimation of individual level market response coefficients to marketing stimuli such as price, advertising and promotions. In this paper we derive probability measures for two important areas pertinent to marketing strategy. (1) Given brand choice literature we derive brand choice probabilities for brand choice and category incidence with category incidence as an event rather than as given. We term this as the holistic probability of choice of a brand and examine the assessment of category incidence probability. We also identify ‘brand stature’.  (2) Promotions considered as incidence and the consequent holistic probability of brand choice and promotions and its implications. We also consider briefly (3) aspects of holistic brand choice probabilities and store choice; (4) probability aspects in loyalty and (5) probability aspects in diffusion of new products.

Keywords: holistic brand choice probability, category incidence, brand stature, resource utility, want utility, promotion incidence, store incidence, individual-aggregate link, consumer sensitivity parameter


15. Canadian Casino Development: Impact and Consequence


Vince Mazza, Jonathan Lee and Jonas Lee, University of Windsor, Canada



Today, casinos represent one of the largest industries to fall under government regulation in Canada. In addition to governing traditional casino gaming and lotteries, Canada’s federal and provincial/territorial governments are faced with overseeing new and changing aspects of gambling, like online and proxy gambling, betting syndicates, and other gaming/wagering enterprises modelled after casinos. Balancing the oversight of traditional and new gambling activities is poised to become one of the greatest challenges that casinos and governments must share and face.


16. Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting Practices: A Review of Australia Top Retailers

Suraiyah Akbar, College of Business, RMIT, Melbourne, Australia

Kamrul Ahsan, College of Business, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia



This study examines corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting practices of leading businesses in the Australian retail industry. Content analysis of corporate social disclosure shows that leading Australian retailers have diverse approaches to CSR with substantial variation in medium, extent, and content of disclosure. Only a few retailers are found to present CSR as an essential component of their business. These companies can help establish a model of best practice for CSR disclosure in the Australian retail sector. Our research implies that the majority of leading retailers need to improve their sustainability commitment.

Keywords: Corporate social responsibility (CSR); CSR reporting; sustainability; Australian retailers


17. The Role of the Small Enterprise Development Division of Sri Lanka in Enhancing the Accounting Practices of Small    Businesses: Survey Evidence

Indrani Mawelle Withanawasam

College of Business

PO Box 14428


Victoria 8001


Guneratne Wickremasinghe[1]

College of Business

PO Box 14428


Victoria 8001






This paper reports the results of a survey of accounting practices of small businesses (SBs) focusing on the various modes and extent of involvement of the Small Enterprise Development Division (SEDD) of Sri Lanka towards enhancing those practices. Our main focus is on SBs whose owners have participated in accounting training programs (ATPs) conducted by the SEDD. The research findings reveal that even though the SEDD takes all necessary endeavors through their training programs to impart knowledge in accounting and its applications, most SB owners have not benefitted from these efforts because of their lack of interest in participating in those ATPs. Because of the low demand of SB owners for ATPs, the SEDD has had to reduce the annual number of ATPs and as a result the number of participants (trainees) in ATPs has been very low compared to that in the MTPs during the sample period. Due to lack of training and of prior knowledge in accounting many SBs in the sample are not able to use accounting information in their decision-making process and they get accounts prepared just for tax purposes. Nevertheless some of them who keep records for a part of their business transactions have been able to achieve their business targets at a moderate level (50%) taking actions on a need basis exclusively upon their experience but not on accounting information while some other SBs who have records for all transactions could achieve their targets, on average, at the same level (40-60%) taking actions based on their past experience, making situational analysis and using information available. But they all still lack the knowledge to measure the performance and financial position of their businesses and thus, are unable to detect the causal factors that affect the success or failure of their businesses. In turn, few SB owners with the assistance of the ATPs, prepare final accounts and budgets and use that information in their decision-making processes, and achieve their targets to a greater extent (60-80%). But, a few SBs are unable to comment on their performance levels as they do not keep records of their businesses.    

Key Words: Accounting training programs, Small business, Sri Lanka, Small Enterprise Development Division (SEDD) of Sri Lanka, Management training programs. 


18. A Study on the Participating Motivation, Leisure Experience and Degree of Commitment of Mountain Climbers Participating in Hiking Activities.


San-Chuan Cheng, Office of Physical Education, Ming Chuan University,Taiwan



The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics, motivation, recreational experience and degree of commitment of mountain climbers participating in hiking activities. Research was conducted through the completion of questionnaire surveys comprising of four parts including basic personal information, motivation scale, recreational experience scale, and degree of commitment scale. The study focuses on mountain climbers in Taipei City where a total of 507 questionnaires were retrieved. After sorting out and eliminating incomplete or invalid questionnaires, a total of 431 remained, with an effective retrieval rate of 85%. The results of this research reveal that the motivation of mountain climbers participating in hiking activities in Taipei City influences their leisure experience and degree of commitment. Thus, through the mediating effect of leisure experience, motivation directly influences the degree of commitment. The study concludes by providing advice based on the results of this research.


Keywords: Leisure sports, leisure activities, leisure experience, outdoor recreation, tourist behavior 




[1] Corresponding author. Email:

Taiwan Institute of Business Administration @ 2008.All Rights Reserved


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ISSN: 1813-0534